History & Tradition: Baptism of Christ

“Seeing our enlightenment, that enlightened every man, come to be baptized, the Forerunner rejoices in spirit, and trembles with his hand: he shows Him, and says to the people ‘Behold Him that ransoms Israel, that delivers us from corruption. O sinless one, Christ our God, glory to Thee!’”

— THE FIRST STICHERON OF VESPERS OF THE THEOPHANY IN THE BYZANTINE RITE
Before Conserved: St. Mary, Willimantic

The Baptism of Christ falls at the end of the Christmas season and represents the manifestation of the Sacrament of Baptism. The Baptism represents both the humanity of Christ, revealed in the mystery of the incarnation, as well as manifests His divinity, proclaiming Christ truly the Son of God. Christ was entirely sinless yet, he stood in the waters of the Jordan to be baptized by John in order to set an example and institute the sacrament by sanctifying the waters.  Joseph Ratzinger later Pope Benedict XVI wrote in his series Jesus of Nazareth on the symbolic nature of water,

Commissioned Artwork, Canning Liturgical Arts

On the one hand, immersion into the waters is a symbol of death, which recalls the death symbolism of the annihilating, destructive power of the ocean flood. The ancient mind perceived the ocean as a permanent threat to the cosmos, to the earth; it was the primeval flood that might submerge all life . . . But the flowing waters of the river are above all a symbol of life. (Joseph Ratzinger, Jesus of Nazareth 15-16)

The Sacrament of Baptism celebrates rebirth of the soul into the Faith and the washing away of Original Sin. The Feast looks forward to the purpose of Christ’s life, His Death and Resurrection.

Looking at the events (of Christ’s baptism) in light of the Cross and Resurrection, the Christian people realized what happened: Jesus loaded the burden of all mankind’s guilt upon his shoulders; he bore it down into the depths of the Jordan. He inaugurated his public activity by stepping into the place of sinners. His inaugural gesture is an anticipation of the Cross. He is, as it were, the true Jonah who said to the crew of the ship, ”Take me and throw me into the sea” (Jon. 1:12) . . . The baptism is an acceptance of death for the sins of humanity, and the voice that calls out “This is my beloved Son” over the baptismal waters is an anticipatory reference to the Resurrection. This also explains why, in his own discourses, Jesus uses the word “baptism” to refer to his death. (Joseph Ratzinger, Jesus of Nazareth 18)

The Baptism of Christ is depicted in artwork with consistent symbolism and imagery. In the image above done by one of our artists at Canning Liturgical Arts, St. John shown baptizing Christ with a shell, a symbol for new life, below the same such imagery is depicted in paintings from the 15th century. The Holy Spirit descends over Christ and the Heavens are parted symbolizing the presence of Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The angel(s) pictured in paintings of the Baptism of Christ support the divinity of His nature while Christ humbly sets an example for humanity.

FAMOUS PAINTINGS OF THE BAPTISM OF CHRIST

Andrea del Verrocchio and Leonardo da Vinci, 1472-1475
Piero della Francesca, (1440-1450)
Pietro Perugino, 1482

BAPTISM OF CHRIST AS TOLD BY THE GOSPEL WRITERS:

Matthew 3

In those days John the Baptist came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea and saying, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven has come near.” This is he who was spoken of through the prophet Isaiah: “A voice of one calling in the wilderness, ‘Prepare the way for the Lord, make straight paths for him.’” John’s clothes were made of camel’s hair, and he had a leather belt around his waist. His food was locusts and wild honey. People went out to him from Jerusalem and all Judea and the whole region of the Jordan. Confessing their sins, they were baptized by him in the Jordan River. But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to where he was baptizing, he said to them: “You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the coming wrath? Produce fruit in keeping with repentance. And do not think you can say to yourselves, ‘We have Abraham as our father.’ I tell you that out of these stones God can raise up children for Abraham. The ax is already at the root of the trees, and every tree that does not produce good fruit will be cut down and thrown into the fire. “I baptize you with water for repentance. But after me comes one who is more powerful than I, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire. His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will clear his threshing floor, gathering his wheat into the barn and burning up the chaff with unquenchable fire.” Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to be baptized by John. But John tried to deter him, saying, “I need to be baptized by you, and do you come to me?” Jesus replied, “Let it be so now; it is proper for us to do this to fulfill all righteousness.” Then John consented. As soon as Jesus was baptized, he went up out of the water. At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting on him. And a voice from heaven said, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.”

Mark 1:1-11

The beginning of the good news about Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God, as it is written in Isaiah the prophet: “I will send my messenger ahead of you, who will prepare your way” — “a voice of one calling in the wilderness, ‘Prepare the way for the Lord, make straight paths for him.’ ” And so John the Baptist appeared in the wilderness, preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins. The whole Judean countryside and all the people of Jerusalem went out to him. Confessing their sins, they were baptized by him in the Jordan River. John wore clothing made of camel’s hair, with a leather belt around his waist, and he ate locusts and wild honey. And this was his message: “After me comes the one more powerful than I, the straps of whose sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and untie. I baptize you with water, but he will baptize you with the Holy Spirit.” At that time Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan. Just as Jesus was coming up out of the water, he saw heaven being torn open and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. And a voice came from heaven: “You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased.”

Luke 3:21-24

When all the people were being baptized, Jesus was baptized too. And as he was praying, heaven was opened and the Holy Spirit descended on him in bodily form like a dove. And a voice came from heaven: “You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased.” Now Jesus himself was about thirty years old when he began his ministry. He was the son, so it was thought, of Joseph, the son of Heli,  the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melki, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph.

John 1:30-34

This is the one I meant when I said, ‘A man who comes after me has surpassed me because he was before me.’ I myself did not know him, but the reason I came baptizing with water was that he might be revealed to Israel.” Then John gave this testimony: “I saw the Spirit come down from heaven as a dove and remain on him. And I myself did not know him, but the one who sent me to baptize with water told me, ‘The man on whom you see the Spirit come down and remain is the one who will baptize with the Holy Spirit.’ I have seen and I testify that this is God’s Chosen One.”